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Note: This webpage is being updated.  Contact TRI if you have recommendations for additions, including for groups working on wounds.

Ecological Wounds of North America

(Adapted from Rewilding North America)

     If we are to effectively plan conservation action that will protect and restore the diversity of life, we need to ponder the causes of today's mass extinction.

     Aldo Leopold was the greatest American conservationist of the twentieth century. His insights more than half a century ago still cut trail for the rest of us. One of his tree-blazes reads:

One of the penalties of an ecological education is that one lives alone in a world of wounds....An ecologist must either harden his shell and make believe that the consequences of science are none of his business, or he must be the doctor who sees the marks of death in a community that believes itself well and does not want to be told otherwise.1 

In recent years, ecological and historical researchers have greatly improved our understanding of ecological wounds. Even in the best-protected areas, such as National Parks and Wilderness Areas ungrazed by domestic livestock, preexisting wounds may continue to suppurate.

The end point of human-caused wounds to the land is today's extinction crisis—death, in medical terms.

The Rewilding Institute, the Wildlands Project, and cooperating groups now categorize wounds to the land in the following way:

1) Direct killing of species

2) Loss and degradation of ecosystems

3) Fragmentation of wildlife habitat

4) Loss and disruption of natural processes

5) Invasion by exotic species and diseases

6) Poisoning of land, air, water, and wildlife

7) Global climate change

Each wound has more than one cause, and many of the causes contribute to more than one wound. The overall impact of these wounds is greater than their sum, and they are highly synergistic.

Among the leading causes of these wounds in North America are overhunting, overfishing, and trapping (including poaching); predator and “pest” extermination (shooting, poisoning, trapping); removing native animals and plants for collectors; agricultural clearing; livestock grazing; livestock fencing; logging and fuelwood collection; mining; energy exploitation; industrial recreation (ski areas, resorts, golf courses, etc.); off-road vehicle recreation; urban, suburban, and “ranchette” (semi-rural subdivisions) sprawl; agricultural and forestry biocides; intentional or accidental releases of non-native species; road building; fire suppression; dam building; irrigation diversions; groundwater depletion; channelization of streams and rivers; air, water, and land pollution; and human overpopulation (which is the fundamental cause).

Wound 1: Direct Killing of Species

Causes: During the preceding five hundred years or so, native animals—especially fish, carnivores, large ungulates, keystone rodents, and birds—have become extinct, regionally extirpated, or greatly reduced in number by commercial fishing and seabirding; whaling; subsistence hunting and game-hogging; market hunting; trapping; predator and “pest” control; and collecting.

Wound 2: Loss and Degradation of Ecosystems

Causes: For almost four hundred years in North America, ecosystems have been degraded and even destroyed by agricultural clearing, logging, grazing by domestic livestock, burning, elimination of keystone species, mining, wetland draining, urbanization, suburbanization, exurban sprawl, bottom trawling, dams, water diversions, groundwater pumping, channelization, and oil and gas development. 

Wound 3: Fragmentation of Wildlife Habitat

Causes: Fish and other wildlife habitat have been fragmented by all of the factors causing ecosystem loss and degradation, and by road and highway building, off-road vehicle (ORV) use, pipelines, power lines, and ranchettes.

Wound 4: Loss and Disruption of Natural Processes

Causes: Vital ecological and evolutionary processes—especially fire, hydrological cycles, and predation—have been disrupted and even eliminated by logging, grazing, fire control, beaver trapping, dams and other flood control measures, and killing of highly interactive species—especially large carnivores.

Wound 5: Invasion by Exotic Species and Diseases

Causes: Aggressive and disruptive exotic species—plants, animals, and disease organisms and vectors—have (1) invaded, (2) escaped from cultivation, or (3) been deliberately introduced, threatening ecosystems and the survival of many native species.

Wound 6: Poisoning of Land, Air, Water, and Wildlife

Causes: Farms, feedlots, mines, factories, smelters, power plants, agricultural and public-health biocides, automobiles, oil pipelines and tankers, and urban areas have spread heavy metals, toxic wastes, and chemicals in the air, land, and water, harming species and ecosystems.

Wound 7: Global Climate Change

Causes: Since the beginning of the industrial era, air pollution from cars, power plants, smelters; carbon dioxide releases from logging; and other human activities have increased the percentage of carbon dioxide, methane, and other greenhouse gases, leading to rises in the sea level, and changes in temperature and precipitation.

Healing the Wounds Goal Setting

A hallmark of recent conservation is ecological restoration. Unfortunately, much of what is called ecological restoration falls far short of the mark. Michael Soulč warns against “restoration” that seeks only to put back the process, but not the community. He writes that “it is technically possible to maintain ecological processes, including a high level of economically beneficial productivity, by replacing the hundreds of native plants, invertebrates and vertebrates with about 15 or 20 introduced, weedy species.” Continental Conservation cautions that “process and function are no substitute for species.” Without native species, the land is domesticated or feral, not wild. Unmanaged land without native species is not a wilderness, but a wasteland.

Much restoration has focused on small sites—a patch of tallgrass prairie, a salt marsh, a suburban creek. These efforts are vital for protecting and recovering imperiled species with narrow habitat requirements, but we also need to do restoration on a landscape level. Less than landscape-scale restoration produces “ecological museum pieces—single representatives of communities that, although present because of unusually large restoration and maintenance investments, do not exist in any ecologically meaningful way.” (Continental Conservation.) A medical analogy would be that of keeping a patient alive on life-support indefinitely and at great expense when there is no hope that she will ever be able to survive on her own. 

To rewild North America, we must have a vision that is bold, scientifically credible, practically achievable, and hopeful. The practically achievable part requires specific goals and action steps—organized to heal the specific wounds.

Although ecological restoration is essential for an overall conservation strategy, it is painfully clear that, in the twenty-first century, wildlands and wildlife will continue to be imperiled by human activities. A frontier approach to exploiting Nature still rules in much of Canada, the United States, Mexico, and Central America. Restoration will come to naught if further wounding of the land is not stopped. Therefore, each of the seven healing-the-wounds goals is twofold: (1) to prevent additional wounding, and (2) to heal existing wounds.

Goal 1: Permanent protection of extant native species from extinction or endangerment, and recovery of all species native to the continent except those already extinct.

Goal 2: Permanent protection of all habitat types from further degradation and loss, and restoration of degraded habitats.

Goal 3: Protection of the land from further fragmentation, and restoration of functional connectivity for all species native to the region.

Goal 4: Restoration and permanent protection of the functioning of ecological and evolutionary processes.

Goal 5: Prevention of the further spread of exotic species (including pathogens), and elimination or control of exotic species already present.

Goal 6: Prevention of the further introduction of ecologically harmful pollution into the region, and removal or containment of existing pollutants.

Goal 7: Management of landscapes and wildlife to provide opportunities for adaptation and adjustment to climate change.

These are heady goals. With nearly half a billion people living in North America (including Central America), they can be gained in the near term only in part or even in small part for much of the continent. They completely apply only to wildlands networks in regions still wild or suitable for major restoration.

        Moreover, these goals are comprehensive, and should be embraced in principle by the whole conservation movement and land managers. No one organization can tackle them all, but all who love Nature should adopt them as overarching goals for twenty-first-century conservation. They must be carried out on local, regional, and continental scales.

(From Rewilding North America by Dave Foreman (chapters 5, 6, and 7). Copyright © 2004 by the author. Reproduced by permission of Island Press, Washington, D.C.)

         (Links directly to recommended resources are forthcoming)

Rewilding Institute Website Resources include books, scientific papers, popular articles, reports, and links to groups working on continental-scale conservation. Among the books, Rewilding North America covers all of these wounds and Continental Conservation covers many of them—both are available directly from TRI.  Other books may be ordered directly from Amazon from this website.  All it takes is a click.

Key articles, whether peer-reviewed or popular, are listed under each topic in four categories: (1) Those in PDF form that can be downloaded; (2) those that are available in listed books; (3) those that are available from a link to another site; and (4) those we cannot yet offer electronically. 

(Note: This part of the website is still under construction.  Unfortunately, many scientific journals do not seem to be interested in making papers available for educational purposes and thus will not allow us to offer PDFs from this website.  We will add downloadable articles as we receive permission to offer them.  We also will add articles when we can figure out other ways to make them available to you. We are currently creating PDFs for many articles from Wild Earth journal and will list them as soon as the PDFs are available.)

For some topics, we also provide links to longer reports, other material, and even comic books.  Please suggest other books, papers, and reports on these subjects so we can make this resource more comprehensive.

Click-on links to organizations working on different aspects of ecological wound healing are also provided. These websites have considerable information on wounds and healing them. Instructions on how to sign up for newsletters, email updates, and the like are given for those groups that offer such resources.

The resources available at this time here are minimal.  Many more books, articles, reports, and groups will be added in the future. Our emphasis is on the wounds of species loss, habitat loss, and fragmentation because they are most important to continental-scale rewilding. 

Note: The following resources come in two sections: (1) information about the wounds and their causes; and (2) information about healing the wounds and the groups working to do so.

General Wounds


Rewilding North America: A Vision for Conservation in the 21st Century by Dave Foreman (Island Press 2004). Includes a detailed discussion of the seven ecological wounds in North America, and a continental program for how to heal them. Order from The Rewilding Institute.

The World According to Pimm: a scientist audits the Earth by Stuart L. Pimm (McGraw-Hill, NY, 2001). A leading conservation biologist methodically calculates how much net primary productivity humans are using. Order from Amazon.

Status and Trends of the Nation’s Biological Resources (2 vols.) edited by M. J. Mac, P. A. Opler, C. E. Puckett Haecker, and P. D. Doran (U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, 1998). A detailed reference by leading biologists on the ecological wounds in the United States. Order from Amazon.

Southern Rockies Wildlands Network Vision: A Science-Based Approach to Rewilding the Southern Rockies by Brian Miller et al. (Southern Rockies Ecosystem Project and Colorado Mountain Club Press, Golden, CO, 2004). Covers ecological wounds and healing ecological wounds in Southern Rockies. Order from Amazon.

Sky Islands Wildlands Network Conservation Plan by Dave Foreman et al. (The Wildlands Project 2000). Covers the ecological wounds and how to heal them in the Sky Islands of southern New Mexico and Arizona (this is the initial discussion of the healing-the-wounds approach). Available from Kim Vacariu, The Wildlands Project, at 520-884-0875 or kim@wildlandsproject.org.

New Mexico Highlands Wildlands Network Vision by Dave Foreman et al. (The Wildlands Project 2003). Covers the ecological wounds and how to heal them in New Mexico. CD only available from Kim Vacariu, The Wildlands Project, at 520-884-0875 or kim@wildlandsproject.org.

Wounds by Wound

(1)   Loss of Species


Wildlife in America (revised edition) by Peter Matthiessen (Viking, NY, 1987). A classic history of wildlife extermination in North America by one of our greatest authors. Order from Amazon.

The Condor’s Shadow: The Loss and Recovery of Wildlife in America by David S. Wilcove (Freeman, NY, 1999). By one of the world’s leading conservation biologists and experts on extinction. Order from Amazon.

Saving America’s Wildlife: Ecology and the American Mind, 1850-1990 by Thomas R. Dunlap (Princeton University Press 1988). An excellent history of the actions and attitudes in America’s war on predators. Order from Amazon.

Endangered Animals: A Reference Guide to Conflicting Issues edited by Richard P. Reading and Brian Miller (Greenwood Press 2000). Species experts around the world analyze how humans have endangered 49 species, from the jaguar to the leatherback turtle. Order from Amazon.

Wild Hunters: Predators in Peril by Monte Hummel and Sherry Pettigrew, illustrated by Robert Bateman (Key Porter Books 1991). Hummel (head of WWF Canada) and Pettigrew look at the polar bear, grizzly bear, black bear, wolf, cougar, and wolverine, and offer a conservation strategy for large carnivores in Canada. Order from Amazon.

The Grizzly in the Southwest by David E. Brown (University of Oklahoma Press 1995). A classic history of the extermination of the grizzly from the southwestern United States. Order from Amazon.

The Wolf in the Southwest: The Making of an Endangered Species edited by David E. Brown (University of Arizona Press 1983). The history of the extermination of the wolf from the southwestern United States. Order from Amazon.

Borderland Jaguars: Tigres de la Frontera by David E. Brown and Carlos A. Lopez Gonzalez (University of Utah Press 2001). The history and natural history of the jaguar on the U.S.-Mexico border. Carlos Lopez’s field research found the breeding population of big spotted cats in northern Sonora that the Northern Jaguar Project is now trying to protect.

Mountain Lion: An unnatural history of pumas and people by Chris Bolgiano (Stackpole Books 1995). David Brown writes, “This is an extraordinary book. Well-researched and authentic, [it] tells the story of America’s love-hate relationship with its biggest cat in a literate, yet highly readable prose.” Order from Amazon.

Cougar: The American Lion by Kevin Hansen, Foreword by Robert Redford (Northland Publishing 1992). An excellent and readable reference to the cougar. Illustrated. Order from Amazon.

Desert Puma: Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation of an Enduring Carnivore by Kenneth A. Logan and Linda L. Sweanor (Island Press 2001). Dave Maehr writes, “Logan and Sweanor’s ten-year research marathon is a benchmark of field biology. Along with an important synthesis of puma ecology and a critique of human relations with America’s lion, their population-scale experiment—unprecedented in research on the species—is destined to be a classic.” Order from Amazon.

The Florida Panther: Life and Death of a Vanishing Carnivore by David S. Maehr (Island Press 1997). Maehr is a Rewilding Institute Fellow and former head of the Florida Panther Study Project. Carl Hiaasen writes, “No one knows more about the spectral Florida panther than David Maehr—and no one has done more to save the great cat from vanishing forever from this earth.” Order from Amazon.

Prairie Night: Black-Footed Ferrets and the Recovery of Endangered Species by Brian Miller, Richard P. Reading, and Steve Forrest. (Miller is a Rewilding Institute Fellow.) This is a thorough natural history of the ferret and a history of its near extinction. It is also an honest, shocking look at the chicken-shit struggles within the wildlife agency bureaucracy that almost lost the ferret forever. Order from Amazon.


Not yet available:

David S. Wilcove et al. “Quantifying Threats to Imperiled Species in the United States,” BioScience 48, no. 8 (August 1, 1998): 607-615.

Many more to be added.

(2) Loss and Degradation of Ecosystems

(3) Fragmentation of Wildlife Habitat


No Place Distant: Roads and Motorized Recreation on America’s Public Lands by David C. Havlick, Foreword by Mike Dombeck (Island Press 2002).  Reed Noss writes, “David Havlick’s well-written book does a splendid job of illuminating the many challenges that roads and motorized recreation pose to our society.” Order from Amazon.

Driven Wild: How the Fight Against Automobiles Launched the Modern Wilderness Movement by Paul S. Sutter (University of Washington Press 2002).  Sutter clearly shows that Aldo Leopold, Bob Marshall, and the other founders of The Wilderness Society and the wilderness area movement were primarily motivated by the threat automobiles and the “good roads movement” posed to the dwindling backcountry after WWI.  He also shows how the natural areas movement, led by ecologist Victor Shelford, began separately but came to influence wilderness leaders so that by 1940 both unmotorized recreation and unmodified ecosystems were the essence of wilderness areas. Order from Amazon.

The Big Outside by Dave Foreman and Howie Wolke (Crown 1992).  A detailed inventory of the large roadless areas in the United States (100,000+ acres in the West, 50,000+ acres in the East).  Out of print but sometimes available at Amazon. Order from Amazon.


Not yet available:

Bruce A. Wilcox and Dennis D. Murphy, “Conservation Strategy: The Effects of Fragmentation on Extinction,” American Naturalist 125 (1985): 879-887.

Stephen C. Trombulak and Christopher A. Frissell, “Review of Ecological Effects of Roads on Terrestrial and Aquatic Communities,” Conservation Biology 14, no. 1 (February 2000), 18-30.  The definitive and essential overview of all of the ways roads harm Nature.

Richard T.T. Forman, “Estimate of the Area Effected Ecologically by the Road System in the United States,” Conservation Biology 14, no. 1 (February 2000), 31-35.  Just how many acres are harmed by roads?  Forman gives the most credible answer.

Reports, Etc.:

Connectivity References compiled by Kristeen Penrod. Click for PDF.

General Healing the Wounds


Continental Conservation: Scientific Foundations of Regional Reserve Networks edited by Michael E. Soulč and John Terborgh (Island Press 1999). Includes a state-of-the-art chapter on large-scale ecological restoration.
Order from The Rewilding Institute.

Healing the Wounds by Wound

(1)   Restoring Species


Note: Only those books specifically about recovery and restoration of species are listed here. Other books about these species are listed above under the Loss of Species Wound.

Large Mammal Restoration: Ecological and Sociological Challenges in the 21st Century edited by David S. Maehr, Reed F. Noss, and Jeffery L. Larkin (Island Press, Washington, DC, 2001). Top field biologists discuss lessons in restoring large mammals (including carnivores) to the wild. Order from Amazon.

The Return of the Wolf: Reflections on the Future of Wolves in the Northeast by Bill McKibben, John B. Theberge, Kristin DeBoer, and Rick Bass, edited by John Elder (Middlebury College Press 2000). A thoughtful and eloquent discussion about possible recovery and restoration of wolves in New England and the Adirondacks. Order from Amazon. 


Articles not yet available:

Michael Soulč and Reed Noss, “Rewilding and Biodiversity as Complementary Goals for Continental Conservation,” Wild Earth, Fall 1998, 22.

Reports, Etc.


General Carnivores and highly interactive species

Naturalia.  Mexico’s leading citizen conservation group working on protection and restoration of endangered species, including carnivores

Agrupacion Dodo A.C.  Matamoros 14, Esq. M. Doblano, Col. Pilares, 52179 Toluca, Mexico. Phone/fax: (722) 2166416. Agrupacion Dodo is a Mexican non-governmental organization that promotes the conservation of Nature through research and environmental education, in many subjects, Including carnivores, keystone species, birds, and grasslands. Several reports are available as PDFs.

Predator Conservation Alliance. POB 6733, Bozeman, MT 59771; phone 406-587-3389; fax 406-587-3178. PCA works to conserve and restore predators, and helps people and predators coexist in the North Rockies and Northern Great Plains. In short, we are saving a place for America’s predators. Provides downloadable publications from its website, which also offers an on-line library of research on predators of the Northern Rockies and Northern Great Plains.


Alliance for the Wild Rockies

Center for Biological Diversity. Champions recovery of the Mexican wolf as well as gray wolves throughout the Southwest and Southern Rocky Mountains. Also advocates legal protections for a variety of other imperiled carnivores, ranging from polar bears to island foxes.

Conservation Northwest (formerly Northwest Ecosystem Alliance). 1208 Bay St. #201, Bellingham, WA 98225, 360-671-9950. NWEA is keeping the Northwest wild, with a focus on large wild landscapes and creatures in Washington and British Columbia. NWEA is spearheading reintroduction of fisher to the Olympic Peninsula of Washington, grizzly recovery in the North cascades, and conservation of all native wildlife and their habitats. Contact info@ecosystem.org to join or to sign up for Wild Northwest alert listserv, Ecosystem Enews, and newsletter.

Forest Guardians. Forest Guardians uses a focal species approach where we prioritize the protection of keystone, umbrella, and indicator species to ensure that our biodiversity protection work leverages as much protection as possible.

Sierra Club Wildlife and Endangered Species Committee

Defenders of Wildlife


Grand Canyon Wolf Recovery Working Group. A coalition out of Flagstaff that promotes wolf recovery in the greater Grand Canyon region.

Southern Rockies Wolf Recovery Project. A coalition promoting protection and restoration of the wolf in the southern Rockies of Colorado and northern New Mexico. 

Sierra Club Southern Rockies Wolf Restoration Campaign.

Naturalia. Mexico’s leading endangered species conservation groups works on Mexican wolf recovery in the Northern Sierra Madre.

Alliance for the Wild Rockies. Has a major focus on wolf protection in the U.S. Northern Rockies.

National Wildlife Federation. Has an active nationwide wolf protection and recovery effort and an email newsletter on wolf issues.

International Wolf Center. Runs an educational and research center on wolves worldwide in Ely, Minnesota and publishes the magazine International Wolf.

Timber Wolf Alliance. Operating out of Northland College in Wisconsin, TWA promotes and assists in achieving a sustainable population of wolves through public education in the western Great Lakes region. Offers a variety of resources.


Northern Jaguar Project. Works with Naturalia to protect the northernmost breeding population of jaguars in Sonora (just south of the Arizona border) by buying and managing ranches as a jaguar reserve.

Naturalia.  Buys, owns, and manages jaguar reserves in Sonora in cooperation with Northern Jaguar Project.

Defenders of Wildlife Southwest Office. Plays a very active role in northern jaguar issues.

Mountain Lions (Cougars, Pumas)

Cougar Fund

Eastern Cougar Foundation  POB 91, North Springs, WV 24869; 304-664-3812. Mission Statement: To facilitate the return of self-sustaining wild populations of cougars in existing and potential cougar habitat throughout the eastern United States. A brochure, “Living with Cougars in Eastern North America,” can be printed from the website.

Cougar Network

(2) Protecting and Restoring Habitat




(3) Protecting and restoring permeability


Southern Rockies Wildlands Network Vision: A Science-Based Approach to Rewilding the Southern Rockies by Brian Miller et al. (Southern Rockies Ecosystem Project and Colorado Mountain Club Press, Golden, CO, 2004). Covers ecological wounds and healing ecological wounds in Southern Rockies. Order from Amazon.

Sky Islands Wildlands Network Conservation Plan by Dave Foreman et al. (The Wildlands Project 2000). Covers the ecological wounds and how to heal them in the Sky Islands of southern New Mexico and Arizona (this is the initial discussion of the healing-the-wounds approach). Available from Kim Vacariu, The Wildlands Project, at 520-884-0875 or kim@wildlandsproject.org.

New Mexico Highlands Wildlands Network Vision by Dave Foreman et al. (The Wildlands Project 2003). Covers the ecological wounds and how to heal them in New Mexico. CD only available from Kim Vacariu, The Wildlands Project, at 520-884-0875 or kim@wildlandsproject.org.


Articles available as PDFs:

Peter H. Singleton, William L. Gaines, and John F. Lehmkuhl, Landscape Permeability for Large Carnivores in Washington: A Geographic Information System Weighted-Distance and Least-Cost Corridor Assessment (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Research Paper PNW-RP-549, December 2002). CLICK HERE FOR PDF.

            Articles available in books listed above:

Andy Dobson et al. “Connectivity: Maintaining Flows in Fragmented Landscapes,” Chapter 6 in Continental Conservation.

Articles available at another site:

Deborah K. Davidson, American Wildlands, “Innovative Partnerships That Address Highway Impacts To Wildlife Habitat Connectivity,” presented to the 2004 ICOET conference. http://www.wildlands.org/highwaywildlife.pdf

Articles not yet available:

Reed Noss, “A Recipe for Reserve System Design and Management,” special issue, Wild Earth, 1992, 24.

Reed F. Noss, “Protecting Natural Areas in Fragmented Landscapes,” Natural Areas Journal 7 no. 1 (1987): 2-13.

Peter H. Singleton, John F. Lehmkuhl, and William Gaines, “Using Weighted Distance and Least-Cost Corridor Analysis to Evaluate Regional-Scale Large Carnivore Habitat Connectivity in Washington,” A Time For Action: 2001 Proceedings ICOET (International Conference on Ecology and Transportation, September 24-28, 2002, Keystone, Colo.), 583-594.

Reports and Other Resources

Safe Passage Links. Compiled by Matt Clark of The Rewilding Institute. Click-on links to various websites with good information on connectivity restoration.  Click here.

Wildlife Crossing Data for the New Mexico Highlands Wildlands Network. Compiled by Matt Clark of The Rewilding Institute. An excellent bibliography of articles and reports with click-on links.  Click here.



The Wildlands Project

Wildlands CPR

American Wildlands. Guided by science, American Wildlands advocates for the protection, restoration, and connectivity of the wild landscapes and the mountain-fed waters of the U.S. Northern Rocky Mountains region. For newsletter and email updates contact at info@wildlands.org, (406) 586-8175.

Sky Island Alliance

Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative

Highway Barrier Identification and Mitigation

Perhaps the most exciting and effective new campaign by conservationists is the identification of road barriers and other fracture zones impairing wildlife movement in North America. Conservationists have joined forces with highway departments, local residents, and even auto insurance companies to stop the road-kill carnage on roads.

American Wildlands. Over the past decade, American Wildlands has used computers, on-the-ground science, and common sense to map all of the U.S. Northern Rockies’ key wildlife corridors while highlighting the places where busy roadways collide with vulnerable wildlife.  Our Safe Passages Project shares this information with private landowners, wildlife biologists, transportation officials, and engineers to help design more wildlife-friendly highways and construct animal crossings over, under, and around busy roadways.

Defenders of Wildlife. Defenders’ Habitat & Highway Campaign has two objectives: (1) Reduce the impact of roads and highways on wildlife and habitat. Existing roads should be modified where necessary to allow wildlife to cross, and minimize impact on the surrounding environment. (2) Incorporate wildlife conservation into transportation planning. Future road development should avoid wildlife habitats and environmentally sensitive places.

Southern Rockies Ecosystem Project.  Works with land managers, highway department, auto insurers, and others to identify highway barriers in Southern Rockies.  Conducts workshops on how to mitigate barriers.

I-90 Wildlife Bridges Coalition.  In the Cascade Mountains of Washington State, bustling Interstate 90 will be expanded from four lanes to six—right through the heart of important wildlife corridor lands. The I-90 Wildlife Bridges Coalition is a diverse group of interests that was formed to ensure that high quality wildlife and fish passage options—both underpasses and overpasses—be included in the highway upgrade.

South Coast Wildlands Project. Coordinates citizens and agencies on identifying barriers to wildlife movement in Southern California and restoring linkages through them.

The Wildlands Project Tucson Office.  Highlights major barriers along the Spine of the Continent MegaLinkages and assists local groups working on barriers. Kim Vacariu, The Wildlands Project, at 520-884-0875 or kim@wildlandsproject.org.

Arizona Wildlife Linkages Workgroup. A collaboration among Arizona Department of Transportation, Arizona Game & Fish Department, Federal Highways Administration, Forest Service, BLM, Northern Arizona University, Wildlands Project, and others to identify needs for connectivity throughout the state of Arizona, incorporate connectivity in the pre-design of transportation projects, and conduct detail planning for complex fracture zones involving non-conserved lands. A report with a statewide map is due June 2005 and will be posted at a website (pending) at ADOT. Contact persons: Bruce Eilerts at ADOT (beilerts@dot.state.az.us), Evelyn Erlandsen at AGFD (eerlandsen@azgfd.gov), or Paul Beier at NAU (paul.beier@nau.edu).

Tijeras Canyon Safe Passage Coalition. POB 11395, Albuquerque, NM 87192, (505) 922-9424. TCSPC is a group of organizations, agencies, and individuals working to provide safe crossings for wildlife and safer travel for people through Tijeras Canyon. Interstate 40 through Tijeras Canyon just east of Albuquerque, NM, is a formidable barrier to wildlife between the Sandia and Manzano Wilderness Areas.

Grand Canyon Wildlands Council.

(4) Restoring Natural Evolutionary and Ecological Processes (especially fire and hydrology)




(5) Preventing the Spread of and Eradicating Exotic Species




(6) Limiting the spread of biocides




(7) Mitigating the Effects of Catastrophic Climate Change




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